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Indian lawyers guide to cracking Supreme Court Advocate on Record (AOR) exam

This article is written by Ashutosh. It is an exhaustive guide that deals with the Supreme Court AOR exam and all essential information related to this exam such as the eligibility criteria, syllabus, exam pattern, significance, duties of an AOR, benefits of becoming an AOR, process, earnings, tips, and strategies to clear the exam and some FAQs.

It has been published by Rachit Garg.

Introduction

Advocate on Record, also known as AOR, is a very prestigious profession in the field of law, they are advocates of the Supreme Court and hold a higher position than any other advocate who works in district or high courts.  In this article, we will be dealing with everything related to the AOR exam such as its syllabus, eligibility criteria, benefits of becoming an AOR, previous question papers, etc. 

The Supreme Court of India introduced the AOR system while framing Rule 2, Rule 4, and Rule 6 of the Supreme Court Rules 1966. All the Advocates of the Supreme Court are not AOR, AORs are some special advocates who can plead on behalf of their clients in front of the Supreme Court and are elected through a special examination. The AOR examination consists of four different papers namely, drafting, Supreme Court procedures, professional ethics and the leading and landmark cases, and each of these papers consists of 100 marks. We will be reading in detail about the syllabus and other important stuff further in this article.

Who is an Advocate on Record (AOR)

As per Article 145(1) of the Indian Constitution, the Supreme Court has the power and authority to make rules and regulations with the approval of the President and subject to any Parliamentary law for regulating the procedures and practices of the court, which also includes provisions related to persons practising in the court.  

According to Chapter IV of the Supreme Court Rules, 2013, only an Advocate on Record or AOR can appear or plead on behalf of a party in front of the Supreme Court. But if there is any instruction given by the Supreme Court then in such a case an advocate other than the AOR can also appear in front of the court. Interestingly, every lawyer who practises in the Supreme Court is not an AOR, there are certain conditions and an exam that lawyers need to clear and fulfil in order to become an AOR.

In order to become an AOR, an advocate is required to clear the Advocate on Record examination that is conducted by the Supreme Court itself. The exam that is being conducted is a highly competitive exam and covers a wide range of topics such as criminal law, civil law and also procedural law. 

All the qualified AORs are registered with the Supreme Court of India, and they are assigned a unique code, each AOR gets a personal unique code. The AORs are also required to maintain their chambers at the premises of the Supreme Court of India. 

AOR plays a very important role in the Indian judiciary and in the Indian legal system, and they are also responsible for the smooth and efficient functioning of the Supreme Court. All the AORs also play an important role in safeguarding the rights and interests of their clients and making sure that every one of them gets justice. 

Eligibility criteria to become an Advocate on Record (AOR)

The Supreme Court of India in it’s Order IV under Rule IV and V has prescribed all the eligibility criterias to become an AOR, and they are as follows:

Rule IV:

  • Any advocate who is not a senior advocate may on fulfilling all the conditions that are laid down in rule 5, can get himself registered in the Court as an AOR. Provided that notwithstanding anything that is contained under rule 5, any advocate whose name is already registered with the Registrar as an AOR immediately before the date of 8th September, 1962 shall be registered as an AOR.

Rule V:

  • The candidate who wants to become an AOR  must have a practice of at least 4 years as an advocate. That means his name to be borne on the roll of any State Bar Council for that period.
  • The candidate needs to tell the Supreme Court that he or she has started working and training with a senior advocate on the record because he wants to become an AOR.
  • After the training of one year under the AOR, the candidate has to appear for the advocate on record examination conducted by the Supreme Court of India.
  • After the candidate successfully clears the advocate on record exam, he/she must establish an office within a radius of ten miles from the building of the Supreme Court, and after he has done all these things the judge of the Supreme Court will accept him as an AOR.
  • The advocate must be enrolled with any of the State Bar Council.
  • The advocate who wants to become an AOR must not be a senior advocate

Duties of an Advocate on Record (AOR)

There are various duties that an advocate needs to carry out once he has qualified for the AOR exam. Some of the main jobs and duties of the Advocate on Record are listed below:

  • Representing clients in the Supreme Court- The main and the most important job that an advocate on record performs is to represent their client until and unless he is asked by the AOR to do so, and only an AOR can file a vakalatnama in the Supreme Court of India, they have the exclusive right to conduct the cases in the Supreme Court of India. Rule 1 of the Order 4 of Supreme Court Rules provides that no advocate other than an AOR can appear in the Supreme Court of India and plead in any matter until and unless an AOR instructs him to do so. However, the court may, if it thinks desirable to do so for any reason, permit any person to appear and address the Court in a particular case.
  • Drafting all legal documents– Drafting legal documents is also one of the most important jobs that an Advocate on Record does, he is responsible, and he also drafts various legal documents such as applications, petitions, appeals, vakalatnama, Special Leave Petitions, writs, Curative petitions etc, and other important fillings that are to be submitted to the Supreme Court. 
  • Handling court procedures– The Advocate on Record should be well-versed and has enough knowledge of all the practise and procedures of the Supreme Court. They are responsible for navigating all the procedures of the court, adhering to all the rules and regulations, and they make sure that all the legal formalities of the court are also followed. An advocate can not handle the procedures of the Supreme Court, it is the AOR who handles all the court proceedings. 
  • Advocacy and argumentation- The Advocate on Record has a duty to present the legal arguments and advocate on behalf of their clients in front of the Supreme Court during the hearings. They are highly skilled in articulating legal points and also persuading the court to rule in favour of their clients.
  • Research and case preparation– A lot of time is spent by the AOR in researching and repairing their case so that they can fluently speak and defend their clients, so it is very necessary for all the AORs to do proper research and understand all the underlying issues in the case.
  • Interaction with clients– One of the most important jobs that an AOR does is interacting with the clients and providing correct legal advice to them and providing all the updates of the case to their clients. 
  • Compliance with the ethical standards– It is very necessary for all the AORs to make sure that they maintain and follow the ethical standards of the Supreme Court. They are required to maintain the legal integrity of their profession and adhere to the professional code of conduct.
  • Collaborating and networking with senior advocates- Most of the time, AORs work in collaboration with the senior advocates, who lead the arguments in the court. The AORs play an important role in supporting the senior advocates by handling all the procedural aspects and document preparation.
  • Case management- It is the primary duty of an AOR to manage the cases with full efficiency. They are required to keep a track of all the deadlines related to their case, filing requirements, and they also make sure that all the procedural steps of the case are carried out timely.
  • Remaining updated with all the legal changes– To perform their duties effectively, the AORs keep themselves updated with all the legal changes that occur and keep all the required knowledge that would help in dealing with the issues of their client.

Benefits of becoming an Advocate on Record (AOR)

Becoming an Advocate on Record is a very prestigious thing, and takes a lot of hard work and dedication towards law and its process and procedures. Since it is a challenging task, if you successfully crack it, you will be able to enjoy the various benefits of becoming an AOR. There are multiple benefits of becoming an AOR, and those benefits are as follows:

  • You will have a specialised and focused career, and you will be able to exclusively practise in the Supreme Court. This authorization of being an AOR gives them the ability to practise law exclusively in the Supreme Court.
  • Once you become an AOR, your earning potential is increased, and you will be able to charge more fees for your services. Typically, the fees charged by an AOR is higher than the fees of lawyers practising in lower courts.
  • Getting the designation of an AOR in the Supreme Court is a very esteemed title among all the legal professionals, that signals a level of prestige that every lawyer can not have. It is seen as a truly elite position among the lawyers.
  • The Supreme Court of India provides a national jurisdiction that allows legal representatives of advocacy to handle all the assorted lawsuits with huge national implications.
  • The AORs can practise all kinds of cases whether it be criminal and civil cases, public interest litigations or constitutional matters. Multiple career opportunities also become available after becoming an AOR, esteemed law firms look for AORs who can help them in litigation matters in the Supreme Court.
  • The Supreme Court gives an opportunity to all the AORs to grow intellectually through all the professional challenges in the field of law.
  • The facilities and all the resources of the Supreme Court Bar Association can be availed by those members who have gained admission through an AOR.
  • The AORs get access to the vast legal resources of the library of the Supreme Court, and they can use all these resources for doing their research. 
  • AORs play a very significant role in the development of the Indian legal system, and in the top court of the nation, they serve an indispensable duty in following the regulations of the legal system and in maintaining fairness.
  • AORs have a responsibility to maintain the rule of law and in the administration of justice.
  • Only a registered AOR can file a vakalatnama in the Supreme Court on behalf of the client. In any matter in the Supreme Court the AOR must be the sole advocate to plead and appear unless it is instructed otherwise.
  • The Special Leave Petition under Article 136 can only be filed in the Supreme Court, if an AOR issues a certificate for the same.

Earnings of an Advocate on Record (AOR)

The Supreme Court under Rules 2013, has prescribed a set of fees for filling the cases in the Supreme Court of India. However, the reality is not the same. For instance, the fees that are prescribed under the rules range between five thousand rupees to twenty-four thousand rupees to make drafts and appear before the Supreme Court. 

The AORs who are in practice, charge an amount of fifteen thousand to twenty thousand rupees for each case, just to sign on the vakalatnama or to file a petition. And if they perform any substantial drafting works the charges will be even more.

Generally, an AOR charges a minimum of twenty to twenty-five thousand rupees per case to draft a single petition in the supreme court, though in some cases where they are assisting an senior advocate then in such cases they may charge less. After the AORs have completed 3-4 years of experience, their fees also increase with their experience. They charge almost seventy five thousand to one lakh rupees for complex cases, and if the petitions are more complex they can also charge two lakh rupees. The charges for effective hearings are separate from these charges. Fifty thousand rupees is a common charge, senior advocates can charge up to one lakh rupees. 

These lawyers also charge for conferences such as meeting senior advocates or clients, therefore it is very easy for an AOR to earn almost twenty lakh rupees per year from the work of the Supreme Court even if you are not based in Delhi.

Significance of the Advocate on Record (AOR) exam

An advocate on record can file an affidavit, vakalatnama, and petition or any other application on behalf of the client that he is representing in the Supreme Court. All the process and procedural aspects of a case are to be dealt with the help of a clerk who is registered in the Supreme Court. An advocate on record is held responsible for the proper conduct of a case. An advocate on record is also entitled by the Supreme Court of India to practise anywhere in any court all around India, however if a lawyer wants to practise in the Supreme Court as an AOR then that person needs to have some additional qualifications as mentioned by the Supreme Court. The post of an advocate on record is based on the experience and knowledge of an advocate.

As the Supreme Court of India is the Apex Court of Appeals and the court of last resort in India, it has to deal with all kinds of subjects that evolve in front of it. It will be highly supportive if all these matters are dealt with by an advocate that is highly experienced and knowledgeable, and this is the main reason why the Advocate on Record exam is conducted and AORs are appointed.

How to become an Advocate on Record (AOR)

Read below to know more about the process of becoming an Advocate on Record.

  • In order to qualify and become Advocate on Record on Supreme Court, the applicants must necessarily fulfil all the qualifications and requirements mentioned in the rules of Supreme Court, 2013, mentioned under the Rule 5 Order IV
  • To successfully meet all the eligibility criteria, the applicant must complete one year of training with an Advocate on Record or a court approved representation of AOR and must also have a training of minimum 4 years in the legal field.
  • The applicant who wants to take the Advocate on Record examination must be eligible for it, and he/she can only be eligible if they obtain a minimum of 60% marks, that is 240 marks out of 400 marks. Other than this the applicant must obtain a minimum of fifty percent marks in all the subjects including drafting, procedure and practice, leading cases and professional ethics.
  • Every year around 250-300 lawyers pass this difficult exam and become certified AORs. Other than all these qualifications and conditions, the Advocate on Record must possess an office in Delhi within the radius of 16 kilometres from the Supreme Court of India, and after becoming an AOR the AOR must also appoint a registered clerk after one month of registration as an AOR.
  • After all the things are done and the AOR has its personal office and a registered clerk, he/she will get an unique identification number that must be present in all the documents submitted by the AOR to the Supreme Court.

What are the rules that govern the Advocate on Record (AOR) system in India

Rules that govern the advocate on record system in India are as follows:

  • The first rule is Section 30 of the Advocates Act 1961. This Section in India allows all the advocates and lawyers that are registered in the Bar Council to practise in any court in which they wish to practise in the country. 
  • Article 145 of the Indian Constitution gives certain powers to the Supreme Court Of India to make certain rules and regulations to regulate the proceedings of the court for all the case hearings that are going on.
  • CThe same system is found in the Indian legal system and is found in the legal history of India where a distinction is maintained between people who argue cases and those who handle clients.
  • In India the Senior advocates that are appointed by the Court , follow a same model where the barristers are engaged by the other advocates rather than soliciting the clients on their own.
  • The Supreme Court of India carefully adheres to all the historical traditions and processes in maintaining its rules and regulations for the registration of advocates.
  • Under the regulation number 11 (iv) of the regulations regarding the advocate on record examination, candidates will get five chances to appear for the AOR examination.

Process of Advocate on Record (AOR) exam application

The applicants who want to appear for the Advocate on Record’s examination must fill out the application in compliance with all the terms and conditions of the Supreme Court, the application form can be submitted through both online and offline modes. The terms and conditions for both the modes are different. Now let’s go through the application procedures.

Offline application procedure

  • Under Order IV and Rules 5 (i) of the Supreme Court Rules 2013 and Regulation 2 of the regulations relating to the AOR examination, the date of the AOR examination is provided in an official notice by the Supreme Court. 
  • All the lawyers and advocates who have completed their training for a period of one year starting from the end of the fourth year of the date of their enrolment ending that ends on 30th April 2023, or lawyers who will complete their training before the commencement of the AOR examination, will be eligible to sit in the aforesaid examination.
  • Applications made by the applications should reach the office of the secretary, and examiner’s board by 6th May, 2023. Offline application forms can be obtained from the office of the secretary on any of the working days during working hours. 
  • Acceptance to the application of an advocate is subject to the production of the requisite certificate of training from an AOR under regulation number 6 of the regulations regarding the AOR examination.
  • Under Regulation 11 (ii) of the regulations in regard to the AOR examination, any candidate who fails to appear in all the papers of the exam will not be allowed to appear in the next examination. The candidates who don’t appear in all the papers and also fail in those papers in which they have appeared shall be treated as having failed in all the papers in which they did not appear.

Instructions to fill online application form for the AOR exam

The aspirants who want to appear for the advocate on record examination can as an alternative to the submission of a hard copy of the application, also submit a scanned copy of the application form, along with all the required documents and the fees, through the mode of email. There are a few instructions which all the applicants must keep in mind while submitting the online application form, and those instructions are:

  • The applicants or the advocates who have completed or will complete their continuous training of one year commencing from the end of the fourth year of the date of their enrolment that ends on 30th April 2023, or will complete their training before the commencement of AOR examination, will be eligible to appear in the exam. Acceptance of this application that is submitted by the applicant is subject to the production of the requisite certificate of training from an AOR under Regulation 6 of the regulations regarding the AOR exam.
  • The application form should be filled legibly and should be also duly signed by the applicant-advocate.

This is what the application form looks like, you can get this application form from the official website of the Supreme Court. Scroll down to the last page and you will get it.

  • All the fields that are mentioned in the application form have to be filled by the applicant-advocate. And if any field is not applicable, then that should be struck out. No material information is to be concealed.
  • All the applicant forms that are not complete or are illegible will be directly rejected.
  • The applicant needs to paste one photograph at the top right side of the application form.
  • One self-attested and legible copy of the enrolment certificate has to be annexed to the application form.
  • The applicant who is filling out the application form must make sure that he/she is eligible to apply for the AOR examinations, i.e., they should have completed the mandatory training and had furnished prior intimation to this registry.
  • The applicant is required to submit the scanned copy of the duly filled application form along with a photograph fixed to the application form, and along with a self-attested copy of the enrolment certificate at the mail ID [email protected] on the prescribed date and time mentioned in the official notice.
  • After the application form is submitted the verification of all the documents and application form is done, and it is found out that the application form is correct and there is no default in the application form then the application will be accepted, and the applicant will be informed through an email thereafter he will be asked to deposit the examination fee of 750 rupees within a period of two days from the date of the receipt of the confirmatory email from the registry office. The applicant will be notified about the bank account to which he needs to submit the fees which shall include the account number, IFSC code and bank name. The applicant must keep in mind that while he is submitting the fees he must also mention his name in the column of remarks in the module of online payment. And it is compulsory for all the applicants to submit the prescribed fees within the timeframe of 2 days and in case if the applicant does not submit the fees then his application will be rejected.
  • After the applicant has submitted the fees, he is required to forward the hard copy of the following documents through courier or post. Documents such as: 
    • application form with a photograph
    • self-attested copy of enrolment certificate
    •  receipt of the payment of the prescribed fee
  • The final acceptance of this application form will be subject to the receipt of the hard copy of the application form. 

Advocate on Record (AOR) exam pattern 

The AOR examination is conducted by the Supreme Court in offline mode for a period of four days. The examination consists of a total of four papers of 100 marks each that are taken on the four days consecutively. Candidates have a total of 3 hours for each paper and the questions are of descriptive type. 

Particulars 

Description

Number of Papers

4 papers

Total Time duration of examination

3 hours for each paper

Number of days in which examination is conducted

4 days

Mode of examination

Offline mode

Type of examination

Descriptive type questions

Language of the examination

English

Total Marks

100 marks for each paper

Advocate on Record (AOR) exam result

Every year the Supreme Court of India releases the result of the AOR examination in their official website, in which the serial number, roll number and the name of the candidates who have qualified the AOR examination is mentioned. According to the passing criteria of the AOR exam all the candidates that have secured fifty percent marks in each subject and an aggregate of sixty percent are qualified to become an AOR.

Here below we have attached an image for better understanding, please refer to the same.

This is how the result window looks like, read below to learn how to check the AOR exam result.

How to check AOR exam result

Follow these simple steps to view the AOR exam result.

  • First thing that you need to do is to tap on this link.
  • Once you tap on the link you will be directed to a page where the serial number, name, and roll number of the qualified candidates will be mentioned. Refer to the image above for better clarity.
  • Once you reach the PDF scroll down the whole PDF that has opened and you can see all the names of qualified AOR exam candidates. 

Advocate on Record (AOR) exam syllabus

The syllabus of AOR examination consists of subjects from different areas of law such as civil law, criminal law, constitutional law and administrative law. The exam tests the theoretical knowledge of candidates in these areas of law and also tests their ability to apply the knowledge in different situations. The examination also tests the practical knowledge of the candidates through drafting questions, as they are required to draft pleadings and petitions. The four sets of papers are:

  1. Practice and procedure of Supreme Court;
  2. Drafting;
  3. Advocate and professional ethics;
  4. Leading cases and

Click on this link to view the official document released by the Supreme Court mentioning the AOR syllabus.

Syllabus for each paper in AOR examination

Paper I (Practise and Procedure of Supreme Court) 

For this paper. One must be well-versed with the important provisions of the Indian Constitution related to the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court. In addition to that, the important Acts/statutes to be studied are Supreme Court Rules and provisions of the Civil Procedure Code, 1908, the Limitation Act,1963 and General Principles of Court Fees Act, 1870. 

Paper II (Drafting)

The drafting paper includes the drafting of various petitions such as Special Leave Petition, statements of cases etc. It includes the following topics specifically:

  • Petitions for Special Leave and Statements of Cases, etc. 
  • Decree, petition for appeal, Orders and Writs etc. 
  • Plaint and Written Statement in a suit under Article 131 of the Constitution of India
  • Review petitions under Article 137 of the Constitution of India
  • Transfer Petitions under Section 25 of Civil Procedure Code, Article 139 of the Constitution of India and Section 406 of the Criminal Procedure Code 1973.
  • Contempt petitions under Article 129 of the Indian Constitution
  • Interlocutory application, including criminal miscellaneous petitions for bail
  • Condonation of delay
  • Exemption from surrender 
  • Application for revocation of special leave, etc.

Paper III (Advocacy and Professional Ethics)

This paper shall include questions on the following topics:

  1. The concept of the legal profession and other such questions on topics such as – the nature and purposes of the legal profession, the connection between morality and ethics and professional ethics in general including topics such as:- definitions, general principles, seven lamps of Advocacy, Public Trust Doctrine, the exclusive right to practise in court.
  2. History of the legal professions in India and the statutes that are relevant in historical development. 
  3. a. Laws governing the legal profession, and their relevance and scope. 
  1. Professional excellence and conduct
  2. Professional and criminal misconduct and its punishment under the Advocates Act and prescribed Code of Conduct. 
  3. Duty not to strike
  4. Rules regarding advertisement/solicitation
  5. a. Rules prescribed by the Bar Council of India regarding obligations and duties of the legal profession.
  1. Need to avoid sharp practices 
  2. commercialisation of the legal profession and the role of the Bar Council in promoting legal services as provided by the Indian Constitution. 
  3. Role of Bar Council in regulating ethics in the legal profession. 
  4. Standard of Professional Conduct and Etiquette as per Bar Council rules Chapter- II. 
  5. Different types of duties of an advocate, including the categories given in Bar Council rules. 
  6. Conflict between the kinds of duties and how can law help in resolving them. 
  7. Difference between the following:
  8. Misconduct, negligence, and breach of ethics.
  9. Misconduct and crime 
  1. A comparative study of the legal profession in different countries and the relevance of the profession with the Bar. 
  2. Different perspectives on the role of the legal profession in the Adversary system and criticism of the Adversary system. 
  3. Issues related to advocacy in criminal law adversarial system 
  4. a. Relationship of Lawyer-Client
  1. Confidentiality related rules and issues regarding conflict of interest.
  2. negotiation, mediation, and counselling and their importance in the justice system
  3. Ethical Consideration in Mediation
  4. Role of Amicus Curiae in Ethical Consideration
  1. Any recent developments in the organisation of the legal profession, legal firms, companies etc.
  2. A. Special role as advocates of the Supreme Court and its obligation in the administration of justice. 
  1. Adjournments
  2. Duties of AOR
  3. Supervisory role of Supreme Court
  4. Contempt of Courts 

Paper IV- (Leading Cases)

This paper shall include all the cases that are provided by the Supreme Court on its official website. The candidates need to go through these cases in detail. 

List of important leading cases

Case laws are one of the most important things on which an advocate must focus while preparing for the AOR exam. It is suggested for all the applicants to make sure that they read all the landmark cases and also make a list of all the cases that are frequently asked. Some of the most important and landmark cases that are asked in the AOR exam are as follows.

  • His Holiness Kesavananda Bharati v. State of Kerala (1973)
  • Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India (1978)
  • Minerva Mills Ltd and Ors v. Union of India and Ors (1981)
  • Sharad Birdhi Chand Sarda v. State of Maharashtra (1985)
  • AR Antulay v. R S Nayak and Anr (1988)
  • Kihoto Hollohan v. Zachillhu and Others (1992)
  • S R Bommai and Ors v. Union of India (1994)
  • Indra Sawhney and Ors v. Union of India and Ors (1992)
  • Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum v. Union of India and Ors (1996)
  • Mafatlal Industries Ltd v. Union of India (1996)
  • Githa Hariharan and Anr v. Reserve Bank of India and Anr (1999) 
  • Vishaka and Ors v. State of Rajasthan (1997)
  • Pradeep Kumar Biswas and Ors v. Indian Institute of Chemical Biology and Ors (2002)
  • Rupa Ashok Hurra v. Ashok Hurra and Anr (2002)
  • TMA Pai Foundation and Ors v. State of Karnataka and Ors (2002)
  • P Rama Chandra Rao v. State of Karnataka (2002)
  • Technip SA v. SMS Holding Pvt Ltd and Ors (2005)
  • P A Inamdar v. State of Karnataka (2004)
  • Rameshwar Prasad and Ors v. Union of India and Anr (2006)
  • SBP and Co v. Patel Engineering Ltd and Anr (2005)
  • IR Coelho Dead by LRs v. State of Tamil Nadu (2007)
  • State of West Bengal and Ors v. The Committee for Protection of Democratic Rights (2010)
  • Common Cause v. Union of India and Ors (2008)
  • Selvi and Ors v. State of Karnataka (2010)
  • Republic of Italy and Ors v. Union of India and Ors (2014)
  • Dr Balram Prasad v. Dr Kunal Saha and Ors (2013)
  • Novartis AG v. Union of India and Ors (2013)
  • Lalita Kumari v. Govt of UP and Ors (2013)
  • National Legal Services Authority v. Union of India and Ors (2014)
  • Kailash Nath Associates v. Delhi Development Authority and Anr (2015)
  • Supreme Court AOR Association and Anr v. Union of India (2015)
  • Shreya Singhal v. Union of India (2015)
  • Gujarat Urja Vikas Nigam Limited v. EMCO Limited and Ors (2016)
  • Union of India v. Sriharan (2015)
  • Excel Crop Care Limited v. Competition Commission of India and Another (2017)
  • Mukesh and Anr v. State for NCT of Delhi and Ors (2017)
  • Common Cause v. Union of India and Ors (2017)
  • Justice K S Puttaswamy and Anr v. Union of India and Ors (2017)
  • Shakti Vahini v. Union of India and Others (2018)
  • Municipal Corporation, Ujjain & Anr v. BVG India Limited and Ors (2018)
  • Navtej Singh johar & Ors v. Union of India the. Secretary ministry of law and justice (2018)
  • Joseph Shine v. Union of India (2018)
  • Jarnail Singh & others v. Lachhmi Narain Gupta & Others (2018)
  • Swiss Ribbons Pvt. Ltd. & Anr v. Union of India & Ors (2019)
  • Competition Commission of India v. Bharti Airtel Limited and Others (2018)
  • Ssangyong Engineering & Construction Co. Ltd v. National Highway Authority of India (NHAI) (2019)
  • Ashwani Kumar v. Union of India and Anr (2019)
  • Rojer Mathew v. South Indian Bank Ltd and Ors (2019)’
  • Committee of Creditors of Essar Steel v. Satish Kumar Gupta and Ors (2019)
  • Shanti Conductors Pvt Ltd v. Assam State Electricity Board and Ors (2019)
  • Keisham Meghachandra Singh v. The Hon’ble Speaker and Ors (2020)
  • Dheeraj Mor v. High Court of Delhi (2020)
  • Sushila Aggarwal and Ors v. State NCT of Delhi and Anr (2020)
  • Indore Development Authority v. Manoharlal (2020)
  • Madras Bar Association v. Union of India and Anr (2020)
  • Internet and Mobile Association of India v. RBI (2020)

How to prepare for the Advocate on Record (AOR) exam

If you want to clear the Advocate on Record examination, then the first and the most important thing that you should do is to familiarise yourself with the past years’ papers of the examination, as well as all the topics and subjects that are covered in this examination. Keep yourself updated with the exam pattern and the syllabus of the exam because these things are the must-do while preparing for your AOR examination. These things will give you an idea about the difficulty of the examination and what is the requirement of this examination, and then you can start your preparation accordingly.

While you go through the past years’ question papers of the examination, make sure that you make a list of all the important topics or most frequently asked topics in the examination, and give a little extra focus on those topics. Do your research and prepare extensively because this is not your common law school exam, it is one of the most prestigious posts in the legal field.  Read below to know all about the preparation for the AOR exam.

Study materials

Before you start your preparation, make sure that you have all the necessary study materials handy with you. Most of the materials that you need to prepare for the AOR examination will be provided to you through the photocopiers in the Supreme Court, and sometimes even the Supreme Court provides a list of important cases and other important materials through notices on the Supreme Court of India website. The materials contained in the photocopiers of the Supreme Court may seem like a very lengthy one, but if you approach in the correct manner, then it will be easy for you to manage it.

The materials will consist of landmark and relevant case laws, commentaries, formats of various drafts, procedures, and practice and materials on professional ethics. 

Books and Resources

Subjects 

Book Names 

Links 

Drafting 

1. Supreme Court’s AOR Exam- Drafting 

By- Jayprakash Bansilal Somani

Click here to buy

Judgements (For Leading Cases)

1. Landmark Judgements 

By- Universal

2. Leading Cases For AOR Examination: Volume 1 

By- Prasoon Kumar Mishra

  1. Click here to buy
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Practice and Procedure 

1. Supreme Court Practice and Procedure (Includes Supreme Court Rules AOR Exam Regulations, E-filing) 

By- B.R. Agarwala

2. Practice & Procedure – Paper I- AOR Examination of SC

By- Dr M.K.Ravi

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Professional Ethics

Professional Ethics for Advocates- Supreme Court Leading Case Laws

By- Jayprakash Bansilal Somani 

Assisted by- Rachit Manchanda 

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Other books

1. The Ultimate Guide to Supreme Court AOR Examination

By- Kush Kalra, Surya Saxena

2. The Supreme Court Rules, 2013 (Bare Act)

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Guidance to prepare for Paper-1 (procedure and practice)

This paper in the AOR examination is added to test the knowledge and familiarity of an advocate with all the daily procedures that create the basis of practice before the Supreme Court. This paper is designed in a manner to test the knowledge of the applicant about the functioning of the Supreme Court and also about the various powers and jurisdictions of the Supreme Court. 

Thus, when going for this stage, you should be well versed and prepared with both the substantive and procedural laws that consist of the practice before the Supreme Court. While preparing for this you may feel that it is a very vast topic but when you will start preparing you will find that you already know most of the concepts. While going through the past years papers you will find that most of the topics are frequently repeated and are very common. Here are some of the major topics that will take the bare minimum effort to cover:

  • Writ jurisdiction
  • Article 134- Criminal Appeals in Supreme Court
  • Various jurisdictions of the Supreme Court
  • Ordinary original jurisdiction (Article 131)
  • Article 136- Special leave petition
  • Statutory appeals
  • Court fees
  • Vacation bench
  • Stare decisis (Article 141)
  • Affidavits
  • Miscellaneous
  • Jurisdiction to appoint an arbitrator
  • Powers and duties of the chamber judge and registrar
  • Concept of the curative petitions
  • Powers to do the complete justice (Article 142)
  • Powers of the Supreme Court to punish for the offence of contempt
  • Supreme Court Rules 2013

The topics mentioned above are the mandatory topics that every applicant must prepare before appearing for the examination. 

Types of questions asked in paper 1

You can expect questions like these in paper 1 of the AOR exam.

  1. Which are the statutes under which the Supreme Court exercises appellate jurisdiction? Whether the scope of jurisdiction of the Supreme Court as a statutory appellate body is different from the jurisdiction exercised under Article 136 of the Constitution?
  2. Under which provisions the Supreme Court can transfer a case from one court to another court and under what circumstances? Whether a transfer petition can be heard and finally decided by a single judge of the Supreme Court?

These are the kinds of questions that are asked under paper 1 of the AOR exam, as it is clearly evident that the questions are related to the procedure and practice of the Supreme Court, so it is suggested that to score good marks in the Paper 1 of the AOR exam the candidates must be well versed with all the procedure and practice of the Supreme Court. Refer to the above-mentioned books and resources for better clarity, and practise as many previous year question papers as you can.

Guidance to prepare for Paper-2 (professional ethics and advocacy)

While preparing for this paper, the first thing every applicant must do is to go through the Advocates Act 1961 and the Bar Council of India Rules. Most of the time the lawyers and advocates neglect the Advocate’s Act, 1961 which is a very negative thing for this examination. 

For the additional reading of this paper, applicants can refer to the book of Mr. Raju Ramachandaran (senior advocate) on professional ethics. This book will help you a lot in expanding your knowledge about professional ethics every advocate must have.

While preparing for this paper, there are certain topics which should not be ignored, topics that are mandatory, and those are:

  • Advocate’s right to strike
  • Advocate’s duties to the court
  • Advocate’s duties towards the client
  • Advocate’s duties to their opponent
  • Advocate’s duties to colleagues
  • Right to lien
  • Professional misconduct
  • Right of an amicus curiae
  • Concept of conflict of interest
  • Contempt of Supreme Court

Types of questions asked under paper 2 of AOR exam

These are the kind of questions that are asked under paper 2 of the AOR exam.

  1. What would be the consequence if an Advocate is found guilty of”professional misconduct” or “other misconduct” and under which provision of which Act can action be taken against him ? Discuss with reference to the judgments of the Supreme Court on professional misconduct” and “other misconduct”. (20 marks)
  2. Discuss the scope and limitations of fair criticism or comment by an Advocate on the judgement of the Court. Also state the role and responsibility of the media in reporting on sub-judice matters. (10 marks)

Under paper 2 of the AOR exam you will get to solve questions that are related to the professional ethics and advocacy that an advocate is obliged to maintain in the Supreme Court. If you want to score good marks under this paper then make sure you are well versed with all the mannerisms and conducts of a lawyer that he is obliged to follow as a law professional working under the premises of Supreme Court.

Guidance to prepare for Paper-3 (drafting)

When preparing for this stage, you should start by preparing a sketch out of skeleton drafts of all the different pleadings that can be asked in the examination. Lay out the whole structure of the petition, starting with the cause title of the draft and then moving towards “In the Supreme Court of India” and ending with the “Advocate for the petitioner”. 

While preparing for this paper, try to focus on the details that differentiate between all the drafts. You must know about all the annexures of the appeal and the petition that are marked. One of the most important and significant skills of an AOR is the ability to clearly and concisely draft a synopsis which should summarise all the legal grounds that are raised in the appeal or petition, as the case may be. The purpose behind the synopsis is to lay down the petitioner’s entire case on law at the very outset. And it must not be a mere reiteration of either the questions of law or the grounds that are raised.

Type of questions asked under paper 3 of AOR exam

You can expect a question like this under paper 3 of the AOR exam.

  1. The Hon’ble Supreme Court of India vide Judgment and Final Order dated 11.09.2022 titled “Upmanyu vs. Union of India”, while dealing with a batch of petitions arising out of the impugned judgement of High Court of Judicature of Allahabad inter-alia held that All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) was the sole repository of power to lay down parameters of qualitative norms for broader concepts of technical education which entails both theory and practical. It further held that AICTE having not laid down the modalities of how practicals could be conducted through distance mode, imparting of technical courses through distance mode could not be permitted through Distance Education Council (DEC).
  2. The Hon’ble Supreme Court was pleased to declare all the degrees and diplomas awarded to all the students from the year 2018 i.e. when such permission were granted to the Universities/Other Educational Institutions till the date of the Supreme Court Judgment i.e. 11.09.2022 to appear in a special examination to be conducted by the AICTE as a one-time measure to get their Degrees/Diplomas validated.
  3. The Applicants are diploma holders from a duly accredited NAAC ‘A’ of a “Deemed to be University” within the meaning of Section 3 of the UGC Act, 1956.
  4. The Applicants were not parties before the Hon’ble Supreme Court.
  5. The Applicants joined the distance course to pursue the advertisement and were duly admitted to the course after a competitive selection process.
  6. The Applicants also attended regular classes, which included practicals.
  7. The Applicants are now gainfully employed in various government services.
  8. The threat of losing their livelihood looms over their heads

Instructions:

  1. DRAFT AN APPROPRIATE REVIEW PETITION BEFORE THE HON’BLE SUPREME COURT WHICH MAY PROVIDE SUCCOUR TO THE APPLICANTS ALONGWITH A BRIEF SYNOPSIS, GROUNDS AND PRAYERS.
  2. LIST OF DATES IS “NOT” REQUIRED TO BE DRAFTED.

This is the kind of question you will be getting under paper 3 of the AOR exam. You will get the whole set of facts and all essential information that are important for drafting, and in the end of the question you will get to see a few instructions upon which you will have to do the drafting. If you go through the above-mentioned question then you can clearly see that there are two instructions given, in which the candidate is asked to draft a review petition before the Supreme Court of India and that petition must contain a brief synopsis, prayers and grounds. 

If you want to score good marks in this paper, then you must have an in-depth knowledge of all the drafts that are used in the proceedings of the Supreme Court.

Guidance to prepare for Paper-4 (case laws)

One of the most difficult and vast subjects of this examination is to prepare for the case laws. The list of all the important landmarks and revised case laws is generally provided on the Supreme Court website and is revealed every year. It is advised to obtain the latest list of case laws before beginning the preparation of this stage. Generally, there are 50-60 case laws that you need to prepare for, yet the advantage the applicants get in this stage is that every applicant is given a Supreme Court Reports Journal for all the cases for the examination.

However, the applicants can not adopt any shortcut while preparing for this stage, all the cases that are listed must be read and the judgements of these cases must be completely read without any shortcut method. 

Start preparing for this stage with a systematic approach. Start the preparation by dividing the list of cases according to their subject such as civil, education, service, criminal, and constitutional. Once this is done, start preparing the list of cases in a chronological manner. This will help you a lot, and you will be reading the case laws like a story, which will be very interesting for you. 

Before you actually start reading these cases, make sure that you watch a lecture by an online expert, or you can also read some good research papers which talks about the growth of law since its inception. Doing this will give you an upper hand because through this you will be introduced to case laws other than the ones which are mentioned in the list of Supreme Court and you will also get a better critical and analytic understanding of law and how it has evolved.

While preparing for the AOR examination, one thing that you should keep in mind is that the examiners expect the applicants to be conceptually clear. Any aspirant who has a grip on the process and procedures of the Supreme Court will always have an advantage over others. 

Types of questions asked under paper 4 of AOR exam

Questions that are asked under paper 4 of the AOR exam are like this:

  1. Summarise the reasons stipulated In the case of Navtej Singh Johar V. Union of India (2018) 10 SCC 1 for declaring Section 377 of IPC as violative of the fundamental rights provided under Articles 14, 15, 19 and 21 of the Constitution.
  2. The doctrine of separation of powers cannot curtail the power of judicial review when fundamental rights are sought to be abrogated. Explain with reference to relevant case laws.

Under paper 4 of the AOR exam, you will get to solve questions related to landmark case laws. Read all the landmark case laws in totality and go through the reasons and the changes that the particular case law brought in the Indian legal system and also the impact it created. Make sure that you are well versed with all the landmark case laws that are mentioned in the official notification of the Supreme Court. Refer to the case laws mentioned in this article.

Challenges faced by an Advocate on Record (AOR)

Everything has its own pros and cons, whether it be a prestigious post or something else. Though the position of an Advocate on Record is a very prestigious job and has so many benefits attached to it, it also has some hindrances which AORs face during their practise. Those hindrances are as follows:

  • As we know that becoming an AOR is not an easy task, the admission process, exam everything is challenging, all the candidates have to clear a written examination and meet all the additional requirements as prescribed by the Supreme Court, for many of the applicants it is a very frustrating and difficult task.
  • Someone who wants to establish himself as an AOR has to go through intense competition because there is a huge competition and there are only a limited number of seats available.
  • While judging a heavy caseload, the AORs are required to perform multiple heavy tasks concurrently, due to which extra workload and extra strain come on the shoulders of an AOR.
  • AORs are always time-bound, and they have various deadlines for different cases which they need to complete on time, thus meeting all the deadlines and the process and procedure requirements is not an easy job.
  • Being an Advocate on Record is a very prestigious job, and maintaining all professional ethics and standards is a very crucial task for all the AORs; maintaining these standards becomes tough in certain situations.
  • Meeting all the requirements of clients in difficult cases can be a very challenging task, keeping all the clients informed and meeting their expectations are also very crucial components.
  • For some of the AORs, keeping up with all the software and legal technology becomes a difficult task.
  • One of the challenges that AORs face is maintaining a work-life balance, because they have an extreme workload and their job is extremely demanding. They are unable to balance their life and work.

Tips and tricks for becoming an Advocate on Record (AOR)

As of now, we already know that cracking the AOR exam is not an easy task, but if the applicant has a systematic approach and knows certain tips and tricks then he can easily do it. There are various tips and tricks that an advocate can follow to successfully crack this examination. Here we have mentioned some specific tips and tricks that you can follow while preparing for the AOR exam, and they are as follows. 

Know your syllabus

Make sure that you are well-versed with the syllabus and the exam pattern. If you know your syllabus, then you will eventually know how to prepare for it. Analyse the whole syllabus and check in which you are strong and which area needs the most preparation. If you do this, you will save yourself a lot of time and will be able to have a good study plan because eventually, the first step of every study plan is to know the syllabus.

Practise previous years’ question papers

Don’t miss out on previous years’ question papers because they can be your game changer. Analyse previous years’ question papers to find out the most important frequently asked topics. Doing this will help you in so many ways, you will get to know all the frequently asked questions and topics from which most of the questions are asked, and then you can focus more on those topics to have a better grip on all such commonly asked topics and questions.

Make a plan

Create a systematic plan and give time to each subject, make sure that your plan is flexible, and you are able to stick with it. Because setting unrealistic goals and having a bad plan can put a lot of pressure on you, but if you have a good and flexible plan you will be able to study more, and you will not get bored of studying. Create a plan according to your workload, and work according to the plan that you have created.

Time management

In all the examination whether it be the AOR exam or any other competitive exam, time management is one of the most crucial thing that every candidate must have, because if you are not able to manage your time properly you will end up losing marks in the examination, and you also won’t be able to attempt all the questions, which will not allow you to succeed in any exam that you give. To improve your time management skills, practise the previous year question papers in a time limit, fix a time limit for yourself and try to finish the questions under that time that you have fixed, and by doing this you will be able to learn time management skills very easily.

Mentorship

Connect with the AORs who have previously cleared the AOR examination and ask them about their strategies, you can learn a lot from these AORS. They will tell you a lot of important things that will help you in cleaning the AOR exam. You can ask them what approach they take while preparing for their exam and how they studied and everything that you need to know about the preparation of the AOR exam.

Online courses

Attend various boot camps and online courses on how to crack the Supreme Court AOR exam, because these boot camps provide some valuable insights that can be extremely helpful for you. These boot camps and online courses will help you a lot in getting an overall understanding of the AOR exam, and you will get to know all the details related to exam pattern, syllabus and many other things. Through these online courses, you will also get access to solve multiple question papers and that will help you to score better marks in the exam. 

Read case laws

Prioritise reading case laws, focus on all the landmark cases and also those cases which are frequently repeated in the examination. Most of the time, candidates don’t take case laws in a serious manner and end up losing a huge amount of marks in the examination. Make sure that you go through all the cases listed by the Supreme Court and all the case laws that are repeated, read the case laws in totality and don’t miss out on anything, read everything from the facts to judgements. 

Answer writing tips

Answer writing is one of the most essential things that every candidate must have, because even if you have enough knowledge, but you don’t know how to frame your answer, you will not be able to qualify this exam. Here we have mentioned some essential answer-writing tips that you must follow while writing an answer.

Paper 1: Practice and Procedure 

  • Make sure to use direct language and don’t use complex words in your answer, make your answer easy to understand. Avoid using convoluted sentences in your answer, and also don’t use legal jargons that are unnecessary.
  • Make sure to organise your answer with proper subheadings and headings, so that your answers become easy to read.
  • Always try to support your arguments in the answer with relevant statutes and precedents.
  • One thing you must keep in mind while writing your answers is to write them in a time-bound manner, so that you don’t miss any question.

Paper 2: Drafting

  • Make sure that you are well-versed with all the important draftings that are commonly asked in the AOR exam. Draftings such as affidavits, Special Leave Petitions, appeals etc. learn proper formatting for all these drafts.
  • Whenever you draft anything, make sure that the words that you use in your draft are not ambiguous and have a clear meaning.
  • Practice drafting which are commonly asked in AOR examination. Proofreading is one of the most essential things when it comes to drafting. So make sure that you carefully proofread the whole draft you make for practice and correct all the grammatical errors, and punctuations for better results. 

Paper 3: Professional ethics and advocacy

  • Go through the rules of the Supreme Court and Bar Council of India and apply all those rules in your daily life so that you don’t miss out on any essential rule.
  • Try to apply all the ethical principles in all the complex scenarios that are presented to you in the AOR exam.
  • Make sure that you explain your answer or the argument with the ethical rules and principles.
  • Use clear and formal language while writing your answer.

Paper 4: Leading case laws

  • Make sure to identify the main principle or the ratio decidendi that was established in the particular case and what is the significance of it.
  • Discuss all the limitations that the case presents and also the relevance of the case in all the contemporary legal situations.
  • In this paper, make sure that you approach the answers in a logical manner. Analyse the logic of the court while deciding this case and what would have been your approach in the same scenario.

Conclusion

AOR is one of the most prestigious posts in the field of law, but to become one, you need to clear the Supreme Court’s AOR exam. To make it easier for all the candidates appearing for the AOR exam, we have mentioned all the valuable information that a candidate must know about the AOR exam in this article. We hope that you have read the whole article and that your concept of AOR and AOR exam is crystal clear.

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Does one need to have experience to appear in AOR exams?

Yes, one must have an experience of 4 years before appearing for the AOR exams. 

Is there any fixed salary for AORs?

No, there is no fixed salary for an AOR, and they get paid on the same basis as a normal lawyer in litigation. However, the fees of AORs are mostly higher than the lawyers practising in any other court of India. 

Is there any restriction on the number of attempts in the AOR examination?

Yes, there are only 5 attempts available to a candidate for AOR examination. It should be noted that candidates who were declared to have failed in all papers of the last AOR examination, in which they appeared, are, therefore, not eligible to apply for AOR Examination

Can only AORs practice in the Supreme Court?

Yes, in order to practise in the Supreme Court, one has to pass the AOR examination and take training as an AOR. Once the candidate has qualified the examination, he/she is assigned a unique code by the Supreme Court. 

Are there any restrictions on the number of attempts in the AOR exam?

Yes, there is a restriction on the number of attempts in the AOR examination, any candidate that has already appeared for the AOR exam for a number of five times is not eligible to apply further.

What are the requirements of becoming an Advocate on Record?

In order to become an Advocate on Record in the Supreme Court of India, the candidate must fulfil the following requirements and must also some necessary steps such as:

  • Getting a law degree from any recognised university,
  • The candidate must be a practising advocate with an experience of four years,
  • The candidate must be registered with the State Bar Council of India,
  • The candidate should not have any criminal history, and should not have any kind of charges or instances of professional misconduct in his name.

What is the process of becoming an Advocate on Record?

The process of becoming an advocate on record starts from filling out an application form. After the candidate has successfully filled out the application form, he will have to clear the written examination that is conducted by the Supreme Court of India. Once the candidate has successfully cleared the examination, he will have to go through training and orientation classes organised by the Registry of the Supreme Court.

Are AORs different from normal advocates?

People often confuse AOR with a new category of advocate, but that is not the case. The AOR system does not create a new category of advocate, but it rather designates the advocates with expertise and specific skills in the practice of the Supreme Court. This designation is done to acknowledge the unique requirements of arguing the cases in the Apex Court, promoting proficiency and specialisation among all the practitioners.

 What is the syllabus of the AOR exam?

The syllabus of the AOR exam is divided into four papers, where all the papers deal with different topics. 

  • The first paper deals with the practice and procedure of the Supreme Court;
  • The second paper of the AOR exam deals with different kinds of drafting;
  • The third paper of this exam deals with advocacy and professional ethics; and
  • The last and final paper consists of leading case laws.
Criminal litigation

What kinds of drafting is asked in the AOR exam?

There are various important draftings that are asked under paper II of the AOR exam, some of the most common draftings  are:

  •  Review petitions under Article 137 of the Indian Constitution, 
  • Appeal petitions, 
  • Transfer petitions under Section 25 of the Civil Procedure Code, 
  • Interlocutory applications, and  
  • Applications for revocation of special leave. No

What comes under paper I of the AoR exam?

The first paper of the AOR exam consists of relevant provisions in the Indian Constitution that is related to the jurisdiction of the court, and it also consists of the rules of the Supreme Court and all the relevant provisions of the Civil Procedure Code, general principles of the Court Fees Act and also the Limitation Act.

What to study under paper III of the AoR exam?

Things that you need to study under paper III of the AOR exam are:

  • The Advocates Act, 1961 and all the cases that are reported under it, especially the disciplinary proceeding
  • Cases that are related to contempt of court involving the Advocates
  • The Rules of the Bar Council of India
  • The Supreme Court Rules, 2013

What does paper IV of the AOR exam consist of?

The fourth paper of the AOR exam consists of leading case laws, and all these case laws are made available by the registry and also released through a notification on the official website of the Supreme Court.

Does an AoR earn more than a normal lawyer?

The earnings of an AOR basically depends upon the experience and years of practice, but yes they do earn more than a normal lawyer. AORs get around fifty to seventy-five thousand rupees for just appearing in a case.

Is it difficult to crack the AOR exam?

Yes, to be very frank, cracking the AOR exam is not an easy task, or something that you can crack without preparing for it. In order to crack the AOR exam, you will have to sincerely prepare for it and go through all the papers carefully. Though it is a little difficult, you can easily crack the AOR exam if you prepare sincerely for it.

How to start preparing for the AOR exam?

While preparing for the AOR examination the first thing that you should start with, is the syllabus itself. Make sure that you know each and everything about the AOR syllabus and start your preparation accordingly. Start reading bare acts of all the important subjects and practice answer writing; make sure to solve previous years question papers, and you must read all the important and revised case laws. 

What are the benefits of becoming an AOR?

There are various benefits of being an AOR and some of the best benefits are getting an enhanced salary, getting better recognition and representation in the Supreme Court of India and most importantly you get an AOR tag which makes you different from other normal advocates. 

How much does an AOR charge for a case?

The fees and charges of all the AORs are different and vary from person to person, but most of the time the fees of an AOR is dependent upon his experience and year of practice. On an average, if an AOR is practising in the Supreme Court for more than four years, then he can easily charge approximately 75-80 thousand rupees for appearing in a case.

What are the challenges faced by an AOR?

There are various challenges faced by an Advocate on Record, some of the most common challenges that they face are, dealing with a lot of workloads, managing their daily life and maintaining a balance in their life. 

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