05/18/2024

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A series ID cards issued by ex-FARC dissidents. Una serie de carnets de identificación creados por disidentes de los FARC.

Colombia’s Ex-FARC Mafia Issues IDs to Enforce Criminal Governance

Colombia’s Ex-FARC Mafia Concerns IDs to Enforce Prison Governance

Experiences of Colombian armed factions demanding tailor made identification files in their territories exhibit felony groups’ expanding territorial command amid ongoing peace negotiations with the federal government.

Throughout a congressional debate on March 12, Senator Jonathan Pulido Hernández claimed that the dissidents of the demobilized Groundbreaking Armed Forces of Colombia (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia &#8211 FARC) have been issuing and regulating IDs for citizens of the departments of Tolima and Huila, in central Colombia.

Hernández explained that truck motorists operating in these locations need to have a specific license to enter and transit through territories controlled by FARC dissidents, also identified as the ex-FARC mafia. Those who do not comply with this necessity are fined or expelled from the space.

In late February, the Ombudsman&#8217s Business issued a discover about another circumstance of &#8220parallel&#8221 ID cards demanded by ex-FARC dissidents in the municipality of Jamundí, located in the division of Valle del Cauca.

&#8220We have read of incidents in which, if a human being does not carry or does not have an ID card, they are detained by the guerrillas, such as adolescents and women of all ages. They also investigate them, charge them fines, or tension them into pressured labor for a few times,&#8221 claimed Ombudsman Carlos Camargo Assis all through a presentation of the report.

SEE ALSO: In Cauca, Colombian Rebels Make War While Conversing Peace

In addition to the cases in Valle del Cauca, Tolima, and Huila, the Central Normal Team (Estado Mayor Central &#8211 EMC), a coalition of ex-FARC factions, has utilised this variety of social management in its territories in Meta, Nariño, Antioquia, and Cauca.

The enhance in ex-FARC manage has occurred amid the Colombian government’s endeavours to open peace talks and negotiate bilateral ceasefires with the country’s a lot of armed groups. 

&#8220We know that this firm has taken benefit of the ceasefire to boost its quantities, consolidate territory, and to attempt to raise its illegal electric power in the territory,&#8221 Protection Minister Iván Velásquez reported at a push convention in early April.

According to information from the Colombian Defense Ministry published by La Silla Vacía, the EMC went from getting 3,545 armed guys in 2022 to 3,860 in 2023, and their territorial presence expanded from 117 municipalities in 2022 to 172 in 2023.

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In addition to managing unlawful economies and growing their membership, Colombia&#8217s non-point out armed teams have extended signaled their electric power by imposing felony governance programs in the territories they management.

Historically, Colombian insurgent groups this kind of as the now-disbanded FARC or the Countrywide Liberation Military (Ejército de Liberación Nacional &#8211 ELN) crafted their own federal government methods in locations exactly where there was very little condition existence. This parallel social purchase has lasted for a long time and has been a identifying factor in the consolidation of prison territories.

The use of IDs is a single system that felony teams use to impose rigorous handle, Luis Fernando Trejos, a professor at the Universidad del Norte and analyst of the Colombian conflict, explained to Insight Crime.

&#8220When you register persons with IDs you know who life, who visits, and who stays in the territory for a particular period of time,&#8221 he said.

Other researchers who review Colombia’s legal landscape argue that demanding ID playing cards issued by the ex-FARC mafia is a strategy for shielding in opposition to rival armed groups.

&#8220It&#8217s a way for them to detect who&#8217s an enemy for the reason that if you don&#8217t have an ID, then you&#8217re scrutinized, you&#8217re checked at the checkpoint, you&#8217re asked issues about why you&#8217re there,&#8221 Crisis Group senior analyst Elizabeth Dickinson informed Perception Criminal offense.

SEE ALSO: GameChangers 2023: Unintended Penalties for Colombia’s ‘Total Peace’

Demanding a &#8220neighborhood card,&#8221 as the EMC phone calls it, is just just one of numerous facets of prison governance in Colombia.

Factions of the ex-FARC mafia and other felony teams have also acted as a de facto authorities by producing parallel justice techniques, gathering taxes, giving safety solutions and legislation enforcement, and making roadways.

Highlighted graphic: A series of IDs issued by FARC dissidents to extort truckers. Credit rating: El Colombiano

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